Sabtu, 04 Februari 2012

History of Indonesia

In early January 1795, Napoleon conquered the Netherlands without significant resistance. King William V fled and hid in Kew, a small town in England. In place of Willem V, Napoleon put his brother, Louis Bonaparte, in the Dutch throne. Soon he was ordered to anticipate an attack from England to the colonies. There are three main target of British attacks, namely: Cape of Good Hope, Java and the Moluccas.Third place is located in the British naval blockade. Napoleon was sent two military men for that purpose. General Jan Willem Janssen sent to the Cape of Good Hope in 1803 and Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Java in 1808.
H.W. Daendels is a Dutch general, an admirer of Napoleon and Jacobis. He led a revolt against the royal Oranje failed in 1787. After his failure, he fled to France. He returned to Holland, 1795, together with the French attack. Since then, the Dutch are involved in European wars of the French. 1797, Daendels led 30,000 troops in the Dutch Texel, waiting for the invasion of England was in a naval battle in Camperdown. 1799, he was virtually a prisoner of war in battle Helder.
In the early 1800s, British and French war to concentrate power in the region of India and Egypt. Unexpectedly Cape of Good Hope as a strategic port can be mastered English in 1806, Java is in a position threatened. Java requires a new governor-general to strengthen military defenses. For that reason, Napoleon did not trust the Council Asiatic officials, Dirk van Hogendorp, a liberal who was nominated as governor-general. So the choice fell on Daendels.
Daendels traveled through Cadix, Tanger, Canary Islands, and New York. With American-flagged merchant ship, arrived at Batavia Daendels in January 1808.America is a neutral country which was not involved in European wars. His arrival alone using the pseudonym van Vlierden (her name) with the ship, intended to deceive the blockade of British warships. His arrival at Batavia, he was immediately faced with the financial situation and poor administration. Corruption to bankrupt VOC. More trading profits into the pockets of VOC officials. Strength of the Dutch troops in Java is not more than 2,000 people with low skills and discipline.
At almost the same with the Dutch by the French under their control, VOC dissolved.Herren XVII (17-member council of businessmen of the Netherlands) dispensed.Instead, the entire Dutch colony directly under the control of the kingdom of the Netherlands and managed by the ministry of colonies (the Dutch colonial government in the archipelago to master Java, Palembang, Makassar and the Moluccas, the rest is held by the British). The direct effect of the change that is about the autonomy of the financial arrangements and the formation of the army.
As soon as set foot in Weltevreden, Daendels replace the Dutch flag in front of the governor's office with the French flag. No one dared employees react to his actions.Similarly, when he issued a rule that prohibited the colonial government officials to give and receive gifts of native officials. Any errors will be dealt with severely and did not escape the rebuke with a very loud voice. Hobbies and snapped a booming voice made him get the call mas mas thunder and fierce. Standing on the obedience of the servants, he built his troops in the number and organization are quite impressive. His force consisted of the Dutch and the natives. He stopped the use of Javanese in his core troops and replace them with those of the Madurese, Makassar, Bali, Ambon and the slaves from other colonies. Rank system in the European military organization applied also in the native troops. They receive training, rank, rations, uniforms, weapons, and also wages. In two years, he managed to form a force of 20,000 people consisting of five divisions: mobile division, three divisions of the city (Batavia, Semarang, and Surabaya) and defense divisions outside of Java. He set the style of the French army corps and transform many of the commercial industry to the military industry, such as factories in Gresik became a weapon and in Semarang converted into producing gunpowder.
As part of its military projects, Daendels also build military installations such as military port in Surabaya and the fort at Mester Cornelis and a main road from Anyer to Panarukan. Previously, only the path is known by locals and that too is always accompanied by slashing the forest. Prefer the use of the trade route along the coast of northern sea route.
The difficulty is that landline has been a concern of the colonial party as told by Tombe Francois. Tombe was a French officer who was sent by Daendels two years before his arrival. His job is to create a map of the Strait of Bali. Unfortunately, he was stranded in Banyuwangi and then decided to travel to Surabaya. The journey took six months.
Of the many projects Daendels within three years of his leadership, major road construction Anyer-Panarukan is the most impact. Even beyond that envisioned by him as a facility that accelerates the mobility of forces (with sea power, Britain had a chance to land anywhere along the northern coast of Java. Therefore, it is impossible for Daendels to keep an eye on. Him, is the most important building infantry forces with high mobility to anticipate further intrusion of the British forces).Not yet obtained the right time when road construction began. Only, in conjunction with road construction, he also founded the postal and telegraph services which later became the name of the street-Panarukan Anyer, Groote Postweg (highway heading). Recorded in 1810 Daendels has purchased 200 horses - the postal conveyance - which marks the path-Panarukan Anyer has been completed. In this year he also revived the newspaper that had previously been published and die, Bataviasche Koloniale Courant. This newspaper continues to rise until the end of colonial rule in Indonesia.
Groote Postweg made within a period of approximately one year. Making force in the local native rulers, who crossed the road, to mobilize the population in its territory chopped. The distance traveled by the Groote Postweg is about 800 miles. In the distance, the rest house was built 12, 126 for the train station, 51 stations for the replacement of post horses, all founded on the responsibility of the local district.According to a report obtained by Raffles, the manufacture of road casualties around 10,000 people. In the Anglo-French war situation in the archipelago, all activities are monitored by the bureau Daendels British intelligence affairs, based in Penang.
February 1808, Du Fuy to the Sultan of Banten to ask workers for road works and the manufacture of military port in Merak. Sultan of Banten is at odds with the colonial government since the VOC refused. He saw the war between Britain and France gave him a chance to rebel forces especially Daendels deemed not quite ready to face the battle. For that reason, he killed Du Fuy and finish off all the small garrison colonial government in Punjab. For his actions, immediately sent 1,000 troops Daendels they lead directly. Banten sultanate was overrun by Daendels even while sitting on the throne said, "I'm the king of Bantam". Sultanate of Banten then removed and he sent his brother to become a resident there (Later on, it rehabilitated the Banten sultanate and determine who sits on the throne. Banten is not completely safe from interference due to the rebellion which often assisted by the British.)
As adherents of jacobism, Daendels destroy the power of the kings of Java. After Bantam, he tried to cope with the sultanate of Yogyakarta. Mangkunegara II in Surakarta has decided to cooperate with the Dutch. Daendels behest in 1808, Mangkunegara II received the rank of colonel and form a Legion member Mangkunegara 1150 10 000 soldiers and received help ryksdaalders year.Meanwhile, brother-in-law Sultan Hamengkubuwana II, Raden Rangga staged a mutiny on Daendels secretly had the support of Sultan Hamengkubuwana II. With 3,200 troops, Daendels can overcome the rebellion. Prince Sultan was killed and Rangga Hamengkubuwana II dethroned and replaced by the crown prince. Top of defiance, the two princes, and Natadiningrat Natakusuma, sent to prison Cirebon.
Towards the end of his term, Daendels face many problems. Leadership journey has been to build walls of hatred among both the Dutch and the Natives. Some of the tribes that are members of his army defected and refused to fight in it. Could not be ascertained whether it had something to do with the activities of British intelligence.
Daendels large projects cost a lot. While the financial situation worsened. British blockade led to a loss of revenue from trade. Even for the currency, must be issued assigant Daendels (paper currency used in France) as a substitute for copper coin of the material to be imported. The only income is from earned income (tax imposed on the sale of goods, toll roads, sales & leasing of land, gambling, opium houses and more.), Assigant printing, and sale of such land. Examples of such land sales that took place in the region to Captain Panarukan Besuki and China in Surabaya, Han Chan Pit. Finally he sold the land area and Panarukan Besuki in Probolinggo to his Pit Chan Han, Han Ki Ko.
At the Daendels, he moved the administrative capital of Weltevreden and Batavia to move home from Batavia to Buitenzorg (Bogor). With his salary, 130 000 guilders, he bought land Buitenzorg to the government and built a magnificent palace for himself the Bogor Palace. Surrounding land is sold back to the palace of Chinese entrepreneurs and resold to the government palace. At the moment about to be replaced by W. Janssens, Daendels sell his palace. For that sale, he has gained 900 000 guilders. On 27 April 1811, W. Janssens came accompanied by a major general of France, Jumel. Daendels immediately replaced and sent home. As a prisoner.
August 4, 1811 60 British warships appeared in Batavia. August 26 the entire area surrounding Batavia can be mastered. Janssens stay in Semarang with a legion of troops assisted Mangkunegara Yogyakarta and Surakarta. 18 September 1811, Janssens surrendered in Quezon City.